…the flexible open source driving simulation

Beattie, David, et al. "What's Around the Corner? Enhancing Driver Awareness in Autonomous Vehicles via In-Vehicle Spatial Auditory Displays." NordiCHI'14. ACM, 2014.

There is currently a distinct lack of design consideration associated with autonomous vehicles and their impact on human factors. Research has yet to consider fully the impact felt by the driver when he/she is no longer in control of the vehicle. We propose that spatialised auditory
feedback could be used to enhance driver awareness to the intended actions of autonomous vehicles. We hypothesise that this feedback will provide drivers with an enhanced
sense of control. This paper presents a driving simulator study where 5 separate auditory feedback methods are compared during both autonomous and manual drivingscenarios. We found that our spatialised auditory presentation method alerted drivers to the intended actions
of autonomous vehicles much more than all other methods and they felt significantly more in control during scenarios containing sound vs. no sound. Finally, that overall workload in autonomous vehicle scenarios was lower compared to manual vehicle scenarios. 

A laptop computer running the OpenDS driving simulator software was connected via HDMI cable. OpenDS is primarily designed with the intention to be used for research purposes and is built on the JMonkeyEngine32.

OpenDS supports 3D audio by defining positional vector co-ordinates for mono sounds and setting the listener position as the camera location within the simulator itself.
As OpenDS is built using JMonkeyEngine3, the 3D audio API used is OpenAL. This API provided adequate 3D audio representation for our study. For each auditory presentation, the positions of each sound were programmed within the OpenDS driving simulator and stored in separate .xml files.

During the Level 0 (manual) automation condition participants controlled OpenDS via the steering wheel and pedals. Participants were presented with the ‘Paris’ scenario that comes bundled with OpenDS.

Download: https://pure.strath.ac.uk/portal/files/38430222/433_beattie.pdf